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A comprehensive eye exam performed by a Doctor of Optometry is an important part of preventative health care. It can be likened to a physical for the eye because it looks at the entire eye and visual system, as well as prescriptions. Comprehensive eye exams can detect eye diseases and disorders such as glaucoma, cataracts, retinal detachments and macular degeneration, as well as other systemic health problems such as diabetes and high blood pressure. A comprehensive adult eye examination may include, but is not limited to the following tests (an individual patient’s presenting signs and symptoms, along with the professional judgment of the Optometrist, may significantly influence the testing done)

DIAGNOSIS

VISUAL ACUITY

The visual acuity test is used to determine the smallest letters you can read on a standardized chart (Snellen chart) or a card held 6 metres away.. Some Snellen charts are actually video monitors showing letters or images.

COLOR VISION

A screening test that checks your color vision often is performed early in a comprehensive eye exam to rule out color blindness. In addition to detecting hereditary color vision deficiencies, color vision tests also can alert your eye doctor to possible eye health problems that may affect your color vision.

CONTRAST SENSITIVITY

The ability to distinguish objects from the background in which they are located. It is a critical component of functionally adequate vision

SLIT LAMP EXAMINATION

The slit lamp is an instrument consisting of a light source that can be focused to shine a thin sheet of light into the eye. It is used in conjunction with a biomicroscope. The lamp facilitates an examination of the anterior segment and posterior segment of the human eye, which includes the eyelid, sclera, conjunctiva, iris, natural crystalline lens, and cornea. The binocular slit-lamp examination provides a stereoscopic magnified view of the eye structures in detail, enabling anatomical diagnoses to be made for a variety of eye conditions

SCHIRMER TEST

Schirmer's test determines whether the eye produces enough tears to keep it moist. This test is used when a person experiences very dry eyes or excessive watering of the eyes. It poses no risk to the subject. Schirmer's test uses paper strips inserted into the eye for several minutes to measure the production of tears. The exact procedure may vary somewhat. Both eyes are tested at the same time. Most often, this test consists of placing a small strip of filter paper inside the lower eyelid (inferior fornix). The eyes are closed for 5 minutes. The paper is then removed and the amount of moisture is measured. Sometimes a topical anesthetic is placed into the eye before the filter paper to prevent tearing due to the irritation from the paper. The use of the anesthetic ensures that only basal tear secretion is being measured

COVER TEST

The cover test is the simplest and most common. During a cover test, your eye doctor will ask you to focus on a small object across the room and will then cover each of your eyes alternately while you stare at the target. The test is then repeated with you looking at a near object.
During these tests, your eye doctor will assess whether the uncovered eye must move to pick up the fixation target, which could indicate strabismus or a more subtle binocular vision problem that could cause eye strain or amblyopia

OCULAR MOTILITY (EYE MOVEMENTS) TESTING

Ocular motility testing is performed to determine how well your eyes can follow a moving object and/or quickly move between and accurately fixate on two separate targets.
Testing of smooth eye movements ("pursuits") is more common. Your eye doctor will have you hold your head still and ask you to follow the slow movement of a hand-held light or other target with just your eyes. If quick eye movements ("saccades") also are tested, your eye doctor might have you move your eyes back and forth between two targets positioned some distance apart from each other.
Problems with eye movements can cause eye strain and may affect reading ability, sports vision and other skills.

RETINOSCOPY

Your eye doctor may perform this test early in the eye exam to obtain an approximation of your eyeglass prescription
In retinoscopy, the room lights will be dimmed and you will be asked to focus on a large target (usually the big &ldquo E ” on the eye chart). As you stare at the &ldquo E,” your eye doctor will shine a light at your eye and flip lenses in a machine in front of your eyes. This test estimates which lens powers will best correct your distance vision.

REFRACTION

During a refraction, the doctor puts the instrument called a phoropter in front of your eyes and shows you a series of lens choices. He or she will then ask you which of the two lenses in each choice looks clearer.
Based on your answers, your eye doctor will continue to fine-tune the lens power until reaching a final eyeglass prescription.

AUTOREFRACTORS AND ABERROMETERS

An autorefractor, like a manual refraction, determines the lens power required to accurately focus light on your retina.
Studies have shown that modern autorefractors are very accurate. They also save time. The autorefraction takes only a few seconds, and the results obtained from the automated test greatly reduce the time required for your eye doctor to perform a manual refraction and determine your eyeglass prescription.

THE GLAUCOMA TEST

A common glaucoma test is the “ puff-of-air ” test, technically known as non-contact tonometry, or NCT.
For NCT, the test begins with you putting your chin on the machine's chin rest. While you look at a light inside the machine, the doctor or a trained assistant will puff a small burst of air at your open eye. It is completely painless, and the tonometer does not touch your eye.
Based on your eye's resistance to the puff of air, the machine calculates your intraocular pressure (IOP). If you have high eye pressure, you may be at risk for or have glaucoma.
Another type of glaucoma test is performed with an instrument called an applanation tonometer. The most common of several versions of this instrument is mounted on the slit lamp.
For this test, your eye doctor will put yellow eye drops in your eye to numb it. Your eyes will feel slightly heavy when the drops start working. This is not a dilating drop — it is a numbing agent combined with a yellow dye that glows under a blue light. Then the doctor will have you stare straight ahead into the slit lamp while he or she gently touches the surface of your eye with the tonometer to measure your IOP.

PUPIL DILATION

Obtain a better view of the eye's internal structures, your eye doctor instills dilating drops to enlarge your pupils. Dilating drops usually take about 20 to 30 minutes to start working.
When your pupils are dilated, you will be sensitive to light (because more light is getting into your eye) and you may notice difficulty focusing on objects up close. These effects can last for up to several hours, depending on the strength of the drop used.
Once the drops have taken effect, your eye doctor will use various instruments to look inside your eyes.

VISUAL FIELD TEST

In some cases, your eye doctor may want to check for the possible presence of blind spots (scotomas) in your peripheral or “ side ” vision by performing a visual field test. These types of blind spots can originate from eye diseases such as glaucoma

Our Doctors

Dr. ARCHANA NAIR

Consultant
MBBS, MS
Cataract & Refractive Surgery,Glaucoma Clinic,Retina Services,Comprehensive Eye Care ,Cataract Surgery,Comprehensive Eye Care,Oculoplasty Clinic,Cornea Services,Contact Lens Services

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Dr. LALA SARAH MATHEW

General Ophthalmology
MBBS, DO
Comprehensive Eye Care ,General Ophthalmology

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Dr. LEENA PILLAI

Consultant
MBBS, DO, MS
Retina Services,Comprehensive Eye Care ,Glaucoma Clinic,Cataract Surgery,Comprehensive Eye Care,Oculoplasty Clinic,Cornea Services,Contact Lens Services

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Dr. Roshini K R

Consultant
MBBS, DO, MS, DNB
Comprehensive Eye Care ,General Ophthalmology

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