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Periodic eye and vision examinations are an important part of preventive health care. Many eye and vision problems have no obvious signs or symptoms, so you might not know a problem exists. Early diagnosis and treatment of eye and vision problems can help prevent vision loss.

Each patient's signs and symptoms, along with your optometrist's professional judgment, will determine what tests your optometrist conducts. A comprehensive adult eye and vision examination may include, but is not limited to, the following tests.

Patient History

The doctor will ask about any eye or vision problems you are currently having and about your overall health. In addition, a patient history will include when your eye or vision symptoms began, medications you are taking, and any work-related or environmental conditions that may be affecting your vision. The doctor will also ask about any previous eye or health conditions you and your family members have experienced.

Visual Acuity


Visual acuity measurements evaluate how clearly each eye is seeing. Reading charts are often used to measure visual acuity. As part of the testing, you will read letters on charts at a distance and near.

The visual acuity test is used to determine the smallest letters you can read on a standardized chart (Snellen chart) or a card held 6 metres away.. Some Snellen charts are actually video monitors showing letters or images.

COLOR VISION


A screening test that checks your color vision often is performed early in a comprehensive eye exam to rule out color blindness. In addition to detecting hereditary color vision deficiencies, color vision tests also can alert your eye doctor to possible eye health problems that may affect your color vision.

CONTRAST SENSITIVITY

The ability to distinguish objects from the background in which they are located. It is a critical component of functionally adequate vision

SLIT LAMP EXAMINATION

The slit lamp is an instrument consisting of a light source that can be focused to shine a thin sheet of light into the eye. It is used in conjunction with a biomicroscope. The lamp facilitates an examination of the anterior segment and posterior segment of the human eye, which includes the eyelid, sclera, conjunctiva, iris, natural crystalline lens, and cornea. The binocular slit-lamp examination provides a stereoscopic magnified view of the eye structures in detail, enabling anatomical diagnoses to be made for a variety of eye conditions.

SCHIRMER TEST

Schirmer's test determines whether the eye produces enough tears to keep it moist. This test is used when a person experiences very dry eyes or excessive watering of the eyes. It poses no risk to the subject. Both eyes are tested at the same time. Most often, this test consists of placing a small strip of filter paper inside the lower eyelid (inferior fornix) and assessed after 5 minutes. The paper is then removed and the amount of moisture is measured. Sometimes a topical anesthetic is placed into the eye before the filter paper to prevent tearing due to the irritation from the paper. The use of the anesthetic ensures that only basal tear secretion is being measured.

COVER TEST


While there are many ways for your eye doctor to check how your eyes work together, the cover test is the simplest and most common.

During a cover test, your eye doctor will ask you to focus on a small object across the room and will then cover each of your eyes alternately while you stare at the target. The test is then repeated with you looking at a near object.During these tests, your eye doctor will assess whether the uncovered eye must move to pick up the fixation target, which could indicate strabismus or a more subtle binocular vision problem that could cause eye strain or amblyopia ("lazy eye").

OCULAR MOTILITY (EYE MOVEMENTS) TESTING

Ocular motility testing is performed to determine how well your eyes can follow a moving object and/or quickly move between and accurately fixate on two separate targets.Testing of smooth eye movements ("pursuits") is more common. Your eye doctor will have you hold your head still and ask you to follow the slow movement of a hand-held light or other target with just your eyes. If quick eye movements ("saccades") also are tested, your eye doctor might have you move your eyes back and forth between two targets positioned some distance apart from each other.Problems with eye movements can cause eye strain and may affect reading ability, and other skills.

RETINOSCOPY


Your eye doctor may perform this test early in the eye exam to obtain an approximation of your eyeglass prescription In retinoscopy, the room lights will be dimmed and you will be asked to focus on a large target (usually the big &ldquo E ” on the eye chart). As you stare at the &ldquo E,” your eye doctor will shine a light at your eye and flip lenses in a machine in front of your eyes. This test estimates which lens powers will best correct your distance vision.

REFRACTION

This is the test that your eye doctor uses to determine your exact eyeglass prescription.During a refraction, the doctor puts the instrument called a phoropter in front of your eyes and shows you a series of lens choices. He or she will then ask you which of the two lenses in each choice looks clearer.Based on your answers, your eye doctor will continue to fine-tune the lens power until reaching a final eyeglass prescription.The refraction determines your level of hyperopia, myopia, astigmatism and presbyopia.

AUTOREFRACTORS


Doctor also may use an autorefractor to automatically estimate your eyeglass prescription.An autorefractor, like a manual refraction, determines the lens power required to accurately focus light on your retina . Autorefractors are especially helpful for determining an eyeglass prescription for young children and other patients who may have trouble sitting still, paying attention and providing feedback that the eye doctor needs to perform an accurate manual refraction.

SLIT LAMP EXAMINATION

A slit lamp is a binocular microscope (or "biomicroscope") that eye doctor uses to examine the structures of eye under high magnification.During the slit lamp exam, you will be asked to place your forehead and chin securely against the rests on the front of the instrument and your doctor will begin by examining the structures of the front of your eyes — including your eyelids, cornea, conjunctiva, iris , and lens .With the help of a hand-held lens, your doctor may also use the slit lamp to examine structures located farther back in the eye, such as the retina and optic nerve . A wide range of eye conditions and diseases can be detected with the slit lamp exam, including cataract, corneal diseases etc.

GLAUCOMA TEST


Glaucoma test is performed with an instrument called an applanation tonometer. The most common of several versions of this instrument is mounted on the slit lamp. After instilling anaesthetic eye drops , eye is stained with fluorescein and then the doctor will have you stare straight ahead into the slit lamp while he or she gently touches the surface of your eye with the tonometer to measure your intraocular pressure.

PUPIL DILATION


To obtain a better view of the eye's internal structures, doctor instills dilating drops which usually take about 20 to 30 minutes to start working.When your pupils are dilated, you will be sensitive to light (because more light is getting into your eye) and you may notice difficulty focusing on objects up close. These effects can last for up to several hours, depending on the strength of the drop used.Once the drops have taken effect, your eye doctor will use various instruments to look inside your eyes. Pupil dilation is very important for people with risk factors for eye diseases, because it allows for the most thorough evaluation of the health of the inside of your eyes.

VISUAL FIELD TEST

In some cases, your eye doctor may want to check for the possible presence of blind spots (scotomas) in your peripheral or “ side ” vision by performing a visual field test. These types of blind spots can originate from eye diseases such as glaucoma

Our Doctors

Dr. LALA SARAH MATHEW

General Ophthalmology
MBBS, DO
General Ophthalmology,Comprehensive Eye Care

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Dr. LEENA PILLAI

Consultant
MBBS, DO, MS
Retina Services,Comprehensive Eye Care ,Glaucoma Clinic,Cataract Surgery,Comprehensive Eye Care,Oculoplasty Clinic,Cornea Services,Contact Lens Services

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